Graphite Anode Material for Li-Ion Batteries

graphite anode material is a crucial component in the development of lithium ion batteries. It is a highly conductive material that is ideal for hosting lithium ions inside the crystal lattice in order to store and then transfer energy during charging and discharging. Graphite is also inexpensive and readily available. The most widely used anode materials in EV battery manufacturing are either natural flake graphite or synthetically-produced spherical graphite.

While much attention is focused on the cathode materials - lithium, nickel and cobalt – in EVs, graphite is still the dominant anode material in almost all battery production. Whether obtained from mined natural flake or produced via an advanced process, graphite is light, porous and durable enough to hold up under the high voltages of most EV anode designs.

The morphology of the graphite particle is important because it directly impacts performance. For example, optimizing the spherical shape allows for more efficient packing of particles, which increases conductivity. It also reduces first cycle irreversible capacity loss and improves cycling stability and safety.

Currently, most of the graphite that is utilized for anode material in Li-ion batteries is obtained from China. This is due to the ease of access to the material, weak environmental standards and lower costs. As the demand for EVs continues to rise, there is a push from original equipment manufacturers and producers outside of China to establish a more secure and cost competitive source of graphite. Novonix is a leader in this effort as it provides mid-stream processing of natural and synthetic graphite for the EV power battery market.

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