What is Lithium Battery Electrolyte?
Lithium battery electrolyte is the carrier of ion transport in the battery. Generally composed of lithium salts and organic solvents. The electrolyte plays the role of conducting ions between the positive and negative electrodes of the lithium battery, which is the guarantee for the lithium ion battery to obtain the advantages of high voltage and high specific energy. The electrolyte is generally prepared from high-purity organic solvents, electrolyte lithium salts, necessary additives and other raw materials under certain conditions and in a certain proportion.
What are the advantages of lithium battery electrolyte?
The main electrolytes used in lithium batteries are lithium perchlorate, lithium hexafluorophosphate, etc. However, batteries made of lithium perchlorate have poor low-temperature effects and are at risk of explosion. Japan and the United States have banned their use. The battery made of fluorine-containing lithium salt has good performance, no explosion hazard, and strong applicability, especially the battery made of lithium hexafluorophosphate. In addition to the above advantages, the disposal of waste batteries in the future is relatively simple and environmentally friendly. Therefore, The market prospect of such electrolytes is very broad.
What are the main components of the lithium battery electrolyte?
1. Ethylene carbonate: Molecular formula: C3H4O3
Transparent colorless liquid (>35℃), crystalline solid at room temperature. Boiling point: 248°C/760mmHg, 243-244°C/740mmHg; Flash point: 160°C; Density: 1.3218; Refractive index: 1.4158 (50°C); Melting point: 35-38°C; good solvent. It can be used as a spinning liquid in textiles; it can also be directly used as a solvent for removing acid gas and an additive in concrete; it can be used as a component and raw material for pharmaceuticals in medicine; it can also be used as a plastic foaming agent and synthetic lubricating oil. stabilizer; in the battery industry, it can be used as an excellent solvent for lithium battery electrolyte
2. Propylene carbonate Molecular formula: C4H6O3
Colorless, odorless, or light yellow transparent liquid, soluble in water and carbon tetrachloride, miscible with ether, acetone, benzene, etc. It is an excellent polar solvent. This product is mainly used for polymer operation, gas separation process and electrochemistry. In particular, it is used to absorb carbon dioxide in natural gas and synthetic ammonia raw materials in petrochemical plants. It can also be used as plasticizer, spinning solvent, olefin and aromatic hydrocarbon extraction agent, etc.
Toxicological data: No poisoning was found by oral or skin contact in animal experiments. Oral LD50=2,9000 mg/kg in rats.
This product should be stored in a cool, ventilated and dry place, away from fire sources, and stored and transported in accordance with general low-toxicity chemical regulations.
3. Diethyl carbonate Molecular formula: C5H10O3
Colorless liquid with slight odor; vapor pressure 1.33kPa/23.8°C; flash point 25°C (flammable liquid can volatilize into vapor and run into the air. As the temperature rises, the volatilization is accelerated. When the mixture of volatile vapor and air is mixed with When the contact with the fire source can flash sparks, this short combustion process is called flashing, and the lowest temperature at which flashing occurs is called the flash point. The lower the flash point, the greater the risk of causing fire.); melting point -43 ℃ ; Boiling point 125.8℃; Solubility: Insoluble in water, miscible in most organic solvents such as alcohol, ketone, ester; Density: Relative density (water=1) 1.0; Relative density (air=1) 4.07; Stability: Stable ; Hazard mark 7 (flammable liquid); Main use: used as solvent and for organic synthesis
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