Silicon-based anode materials may become the vane of next-generation batteries

The potential of graphite anode is fully tapped, and silicon-based anode comes to the front.


According to research findings, the current high-end graphite gram capacity has reached 360-365mAh/g, close to the theoretical gram capacity of 372mAh/g. In the silicon-based anode material, Si and Li+ produce an alloying reaction, and the maximum gram capacity can reach 4200 mAh/g, which is more than ten times that of graphite. According to the "Research on Silicon-based Anode Materials for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries," if not When using lithium-rich cathode, when the cell energy density reaches 280Wh/kg or more, the silicon-based anode must be used.


Therefore, from the perspective of anode materials, silicon-based anode materials are auspicious next-generation high-energy-density lithium-ion battery anode materials.


Nanometerization effectively solves the problem of easy expansion and powdering of silicon materials.


Since silicon stores, lithium through alloying, Si and Li+ will produce a series of reactions when charging under traditional technology, and the volume will change continuously. According to research by New Era Securities, as the degree of lithiation increases, when silicon is completely lithiated to produce Li22Si5, its theoretical capacity will reach 4200 mAh/g, and the volume will expand by 320%. In contrast, the same work of carbon material is only 16%.


Simultaneously, during the charge and discharge cycle, the volume of the silicon particles will change, which will cause the electrode material to fall off the electrode sheet due to stress, which will lead to a sharp decline in battery capacity and shorten the cycle life.


According to research, nanomaterials often have a smaller size and higher specific surface area, so that atoms on the surface of nanomaterials also have higher average binding energy. Therefore, they can better release the stress during the volume expansion process, effectively avoid the collapse of their structure, thereby maintaining the electrode's shell capacity and improving the cycle performance of the battery.


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